A flawless bibliography is a mandatory part of scientific seminar, home and graduation. It provides the basis on which to track and verify whether the work has been cited correctly, so it must be very precise. Verbal and analogous citations are not plagiarism, but a compelling part of scientific work – provided that the sources are always correctly stated. This article summarizes important information about the bibliography.
Specifications are often individual
The bibliography is an important part of the scientific work. Here are all the sources quoted in the work. The individual specifications of different universities and chairs vary. As a rule, you can obtain a guideline for scientific work from your supervising chair, in which the guidelines relevant to your work are compiled.
For example, some departments would like separate contributions from anthologies to include a separate summary of the anthology or to specify basic works or specialist contributions that were not quoted but used for information purposes. For other chairs this can be a “NoGo”. So it is really essential to know or ask about the relevant practices.
The presentation of the sources can also be done in different ways. For example, the author names or the names of magazines may be written in uppercase or italics. Commands or points may be desired between the elements of the citation, and in general some chairs may like to divide the sources by type, while others may want all the sources in a directory in alphabetical order.
What belongs in the bibliography?
Here can – as already mentioned – individual deviations arise. Basically, however, that all directly or indirectly quoted sources belong in the bibliography.
What types of sources are there?
The sources used can be subdivided into different categories, for which there are often individual citation guidelines in the guideline for scientific work.
For monographs, the structure is often as follows:
- Name, first name of the author (year of publication): title, subtitle, edition (if not first edition), place of publication: publisher.
- Here, the entire first name or only the initials of the first name may be desired, a listing of the publisher is not always necessary.
- With several authors these are usually separated by “/”.
- Holtbrügge, D. (2007): Human Resource Management, 3rd, revised and expanded ed., Heidelberg.
- Contributions from edited volumes are often given as follows:
- Name of the author (s): Title, Subtitle of the article, in: Name of the publisher (publisher): Title, subtitles of the anthology, location: publisher, page numbers of the quoted article.
- Bach, V./Österle, H. (1999): Knowledge Management, an entrepreneurial perspective, in: Bach, V./Vogler, P./Österle, H. (ed.): Business Knowledge Management, practical experience with intranet-based solutions , Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 13-35.
- If the anthology is also listed completely, it may look like this:
- Name of publisher (s) (ed.) (Year): title, possibly subtitles, edition (if not first edition), location: publisher.
Bach, V./Vogler, P./Österle, H. (ed.) (1999): Business Knowledge Management, practical experience with intranet-based solutions, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.
Journal articles are often given as:
Name of the author (year of publication): title of the article, subtitles, in: name of the journal, year, issue number, page number (s).
Wild, J. (1973): Organization and Hierarchy, in: Journal of Organization, 42nd ed., No. 1, pp. 45-54.
Internet sources can be verified as follows:
- Name of the author or publisher (year): title, URL, retrieval date.
- For Internet sources is often no author, but only a publisher specified.
Handelsblatt (2010): Uneven oil prices
If publication year or place of publication are not available, this information will be replaced by o. J. (without year) or o.O. (without location).
The sources are sorted alphabetically according to the surnames of the authors. If different contributions from the same author from the same year are cited, these are to be distinguished by lowercase letters.
Petermann, H. (2012): …
Petermann, H. (2012a): …
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